Detection of tumour markers for urinary bladder cancer with focus on occupational dye workers Executive Summary of the Project

Brief objects of the Project:

Survey on dye units workers employed and Gc-Ms based Chemical analysis of dyes.

Selection of individuals and collection of blood and urine samples.

Enzymatic analysis of samples.

Detection of Tumour markers from collected samples.

Functional Analysis of Kidney.

Work done so far


Survey of dye units and workers employed

In this project, Tirupur, a popular town known for textiles industries, located in Tamilnadu was selected as study area. In this study number of dye units, number of workers employed,their age,education, sex and working experience, working duration, infra structural facilities, safety methods used while handling dyes were analyzed. By visiting the different textile dye industries, the following are observed.

Survey on dye units workers employed and Gc-Ms based Chemical analysis of dyes.

The Town having around 610 dyeing factories is the major interest. In each Industry approximately 200 labors are working from morning eight from evening six, among them 80% are men and 20% are women.

The working community age group varies from 20 to 60 Years.

Maximum of the workers employed in dye industry are uneducated hence they handle the dyes without knowing the toxic impacts.

Handling of dye process includes weighing, mixing the dyes for different colour combinations, designing , mercerizing , bleaching , dyeingdrying and printing etc.

Workers never use mask,cloves, not proper hand wash before meals or any other safety measures.

GC-MS based Chemical analysis of dyes:

Commonly used dyes in Textile industries were delected and purchased. They are Black-B, Orange-MEZRL,Yellow-R, Direct Blue, Direct black, Acid black and acid red.

By visiting the different textile dye industries in Tirupur, the following are observed.

Toxicity was analyzed through Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrum (GC-MS analysis) at textile Committee, Government of India, Ministry of textiles,Quality & Eco club, Madurai.The compounds analyzed through GC-MS are highly carcinogenic which are mentioned below.

Asscessment of selected Textile Dyes

S.No Name of the selected dyes Carcinogenic compounds present
1 Black-B Naphthalene
2 Orange-MEZRL Aniline
3 Yelloow-R Chloroaniline
4 Acid black Benzidine
5 Direct Blue Benzidine
6 Direct red 4-amino biphenyl,benzidine
7 Direct black 4-amino biphenyl,benzidine

Summary of the Findings

Low level of haemoglobin content is observed in all selected patients samples. The low leveof haemoglobin content is noticed in many of the samples because of hematuria condition of the patients, due to loss of blood in urine.

WBC content also increased in majority of the blood samples. Increase is due to allergic conditions and also observed in cancer cases.

Increase of lymphocytes is observed with cancer condition. Higher level of Eosinophil is noted in all samples: which indicates Asthuma,bronchitis and in cancer cases.

Initial stages of cancer exhibits high level of WBC and lymphocytes. During treatment the platelet went is decreased.

Packed cell value (PCV)- is low in all selected samples.PCV and haemoglobin content is directly proportional to each other. In majority of the blood samples showed less haemoglobin content and PCV. Packed cell value is one of the method to check the disease Anemia.

In majority of the samples there is a prolonged bleeding time and clothing time is noted.At the same time, platelet count is very low.

Low level of platelet count induced long clotting and bleeding time.

In blood group no specificity is observed. All blood groups are susceptible to urinary bladder cancer.

Coagulation and biochemical Parameters Analyzed from selected Urinary Bladder Cancer Samples.

Less amount of bilirubin content is noted low level of bilirubin will affect the liver functions.

Glucose level also seen in increased level in few patients samples.

Urea and creatinine level is very high in 90% of the samples tested which indicate the failure of Kidney functions. Kidney fails to absorb the urea and creatinine from the blood hence the level of urea and creatinine increased in blood and ultimately increase/induces the blood Pressure.(BP)

Glomerular Filtration rate (GFR) is the another method to measure the blood urea and creatinine level.If the GFR level is below or nearing 30 is the indication of Serious Condition of the patient. In all the tested blood samples showed the GFR level is near 30,showed the failure of the Kidney functions because of urinary bladder cancer of the patients.

In maximum cases, urinary bladder cancer spreads in reverse direction and reached the Kidney through the urinary bladder, and affects the Kidney and reduces the filtration capacity of Kidney.

In all the tested samples the filtration rate is low, which leads to the deposition of urea, and creatinine in blood and urine. Hence, the urine is getting concentrated and the release of urine level is very low.(Normal rate of urine flow is 1 liter per day. But for urinary bladder cancer people, the urine flow rate is around 30ml, and its very hard to release for the patients.Many of the cases, Observed that blood also coming along with urine.

For balanced health the concentration Sodium and Potassium should be in balanced level.Based upon the body’s need sodium combines with chloride and forms Nacl.Sometimes potassium combines with chloride and form Kcl.

In our body due to abnormal situations like diseases, both K and Na have opposite effect on each other. If Potassium level decreases it affects brain functions and leads to coma.

If Potassium level is decreased the Kidney function is altered, leads to Kidney failure.

In many steady 90% of the tested samples showed less amount of Potassium indicates less functional status of the Kidney.

Liver function Test parameters Analysed from selected Urinary Tumour Cancer Patients:

Bilirubin content is observed in normal condition in all the cases.But during treatment because of drug actions, the content increases.

All tested samples ahowed low level of total protein and albumin in blood of because of kidney failure.Kidney failure leads to release of albumin and total protein in urine. So, less in blood leads to swelling of leg. Low albumin in blood affects liver function.

Engyme Analysis in selected blood Samples:

Engymes like Serum Glutamate Oxaloacelate Transaminase,(SGOT),Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase(SGPT), Serum Gamma Glutamate Transaminase(SGGT) and Alkaline Phosphatase(AP) are very low level in all the selected/tested samples very low level affects the liver secretions and affects the liver functions.

All tested samples showed the negative results(non-reactive) for HIV and Hepatitis antigen.

Clinical Pathology Parameters analysed from Urine Samples of Selected Urinary bladder Cancer Patients

Table 17-20 exhibits the parameters analysed from Urine Samples.

Colour of the urine is one of the symptoms to be considered for urinary bladder cancer.

Regarding the Urine colour:

75% of the tested sample, showed reddish colour, because of blood in Urine-haematoria 25% of samples represent straw yellow.

Urine appearance is turbid in majority of the samples, indicates the Presence of Urothelical or pus cells.

Urine protein content is seen is 90% of samples because of failure in glomerular filtration. Urine glucose level also seen in increases level.

Contribution to the Society

Awareness is created among workers, about the carcinogenic nature of dyes.

The correlation between working experiences (by means of years) and chances of susceptible to diseases could be explained.

For Textile dye workers what are the possible diseases(Allergy, Asthuma, Skin diseases, hematuria urinary tumour bladder cancer etc) could be explained.

Symptoms of Urinary bladder cancer-Explained.

Awareness about Medical-Check up was explained both officials and workers

Do’s and Don’s were clearely explained to prevent from infections, diseases there by to produce a health population in India.

Dr.N.Puvaneswari, Principal, Arulmigu Palaniandavar Arts College For Women, Palani